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老年人面孔信任评价的积极效应及其发生机制

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Evaluation of facial trustworthiness in older adults: a positivity effect and its mechanism

摘要: 面孔信任评价的积极效应是指相比年轻人,老年人对陌生面孔的信任评价更加积极。社会情绪选择理论和动态整合理论分别从认知控制和认知衰退的角度解释其内在机制,未形成统一模型。现有研究发现,在认知资源充足和不充足的条件下,老年人会分别提高对可信和不可信面孔的信任评价。而来自脑成像的证据表明,杏仁核和前脑岛功能的衰退可能降低老年人对不可信面孔的敏感性,而尾状核功能的过度激活可能增强老年人对可信面孔的敏感性。最后,综合以往研究提出面孔信任评价积极效应的双过程模型。未来研究可以试图构建一个更为全面的理论解释框架,考察面孔信任视知觉加工的年龄差异,并利用多种分析方法厘清神经机制。除此之外,可以考虑引入正念练习和经颅磁刺激来改善老年人在初始人际交往中的受骗脆弱性。

Abstract: The positivity effect in facial trustworthiness evaluation is that older adults are more positive in trustworthiness evaluation of unfamiliar faces than younger adults. Socioemotional selectivity theory and dynamic integration theory explain its mechanisms from the perspective of cognitive control and cognitive decline respectively, but a unified model has yet been established. Existing studies have found that under the condition of sufficient and insufficient cognitive resources, older adults would improve the trustworthiness evaluation of trustworthy and untrustworthy faces respectively. Neuroimaging studies have found that the decline of the amygdala and anterior insula may reduce the sensitivity of older adults to untrustworthy faces, while the hyperactivation of the caudate may enhance their sensitivity to trustworthy faces. In light of previous studies, a dual-process model of the positivity effect in facial trustworthiness evaluation was proposed. Future studies should attempt to construct a more comprehensive theoretical explanation framework, investigate the age difference of facial trustworthiness processing and clarify the neural mechanism by using a variety of analysis methods. Furthermore, mindfulness practices as well as transcranial magnetic stimulation can be introduced to help reduce older adults' vulnerability to fraud in the initial interpersonal interactions.

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[V1] 2023-03-14 19:07:11 ChinaXiv:202303.00140V1 下载全文
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